Female Criminal Leadership and Differing Use of Violence

Women’s participation in organized crime groups is not uniform. The diverse roles that women play in criminal economies allow us to characterize different types of participation, forming a spectrum ... READ MORE

Roles of Women in Organized Crime

This section will discuss the main roles that women play in drug trafficking, human trafficking and migrant smuggling, with a focus on identifying the full spectrum of female criminal activity in thes... READ MORE

Introduction to Gender and Organized Crime

Executive Summary In Latin America, the participation of women in organized crime has been somewhat overlooked in academic and public policy debate due to the male dominance in the different criminal ... READ MORE

The Ghost Lives the High Life in Madrid

The Ghost, a paramilitary drug lord, has moved to Madrid with his millions of drug dollars. He has dodged the Colombian justice system and perhaps secured a pass from the United States after informing... READ MORE

Tracking the Ghost: Follow the Money

“The Ghost” had fled Medellín, tied off loose ends in the underworld and perhaps suspended his drug trafficking activities. He disappeared with millions of dollars. That kind of money is hard to ... READ MORE

The Ghost Loses Drug Trafficking Partners

After the demobilization of the AUC in 2006, the paramilitary high command was behind bars. All except alias “Sebastián Colmenares” and his alter ego, “Memo Fantasma,” who was still moving hu... READ MORE

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