From cooks and coca harvesters to owners of their drug empires or trafficking and smuggling networks, women operate in a versatile manner, challenging traditional stereotypes about how they participate in criminal groups.

This investigation by InSight Crime and Universidad del Rosario’s Colombian Organized Crime Observatory reveals the complexity of female roles inside organized crime and questions the tendency to present women only as victims, or in some cases, as victimizers.

Investigation Chapters

Conclusions and Recommendations

As has been reiterated throughout this report, the participation of women in organized criminal economies is becoming ever more relevant and is accelerating. Studies of this phenomenon, which have been fundamental in understanding this situation, are still too few given their importance and magnitude.