HomeNewsAnalysisReport Recognizes Drug Trafficking Influence of Venezuela’s Cartel of the Suns

Report Recognizes Drug Trafficking Influence of Venezuela’s Cartel of the Suns


For the first time, the International Narcotics Control Board has recognized the growing influence of the "Cartel of the Suns," the name for a criminal structure within the ranks of the Venezuelan government and military, in the country's drug trafficking.   

In its 2019 report, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) reports uncovering evidence about a network of members of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana - FANB) and other groups within the Venezuelan government dedicated to facilitating the transport of drugs in and out of the country. 

“There are indications that in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, criminal groups have succeeded in infiltrating government security forces, forming an informal network known as the 'Cartel of the Suns' to facilitate the passage of illicit drugs into and out the country,” indicated the report published on February 27, 2020.

According to investigations by InSight Crime, the Cartel of the Suns, known in Spanish as the 'Cartel de los Soles,' consists of a series of cells made up of high-ranking members of the FANB and government officials involved in drug trafficking-related activities.

SEE ALSO: Venezuela News and Profile

The Cartel of the Suns, a name alluding to the stars Venezuelan generals wear on their uniforms, started out accepting bribes in exchange for looking the other way when drugs passed and protecting Colombian drug traffickers operating from Venezuela. However, over the last decade, they have grown stronger and have acquired a greater share in drug trafficking. 

Furthermore, the INCB report describes Venezuela as the main bridge to the United States and Europe used by criminal groups to transport large quantities of Colombian-produced cocaine. Additionally, it explains that aircrafts loaded with drug shipments regularly take off from Venezuela en route to Guatemala and Honduras. 

The document indicates that Colombian traffickers are looking to move cocaine base paste to Venezuela for processing, where 22 medium-sized cocaine laboratories located in the border region were destroyed in 2018.

The report also highlights the 35.5 tons of cocaine hydrochloride reportedly seized by Venezuelan authorities in 2018, making it the country with the second-highest number of seizures after Colombia. 

InSight Crime Analysis

While the participation of Venezuelan military officials in drug trafficking has been going on since the 1990s, the recent acknowledgment of the Cartel of the Suns' existence is yet more confirmation of its growing importance in the international drug trafficking scenario. 

Former Venezuelan judge Mildred Camero considers the announcement to be a positive step but states that “the international community has taken a long time to recognize what is happening in Venezuela, primarily in relation to drug trafficking and the involvement of a significant part of the armed forces. As of 2003, we began to point out the incursion of the Venezuelan military in drug trafficking in the annual reports we sent to the INCB,” the expert told InSight Crime.

The United States has also warned of the links between criminal operations and the Venezuelan military. In 2010, Washington issued sanctions against the former director of the defunct Venezuelan intelligence agency, who now serves as the governor of Trujillo, General Henry Rangel Silva, for drug trafficking, as well as against the former interior minister, Ramón Rodríguez Chacín, and former intelligence chief, Hugo Carvajal.

In 2016, former GNB comandante and current Minister of the Interior, Justice and Peace, Néstor Reverol, was accused by a New York court of accepting bribes to allow cocaine trafficking while he led Venezuela’s anti-narcotics agency. 

In 2018, the US Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Controls (OFAC) sanctioned Diosdado Cabello for “drug trafficking, money laundering and other corrupt activities.” Cabello is considered to be one of the key figures within the Cartel of the Suns as well as holding broad power having previously been vice president and Speaker of the National Assembly. A recent article by ABC reported that he leads the network of FANB officials that work to control gold, fuel and drug contraband.

The Cartel of the Suns is not only made up of military officers. High-ranking government officials have also been indicated as participating in drug trafficking operations, among them Vice President Tareck El Aissami.

SEE ALSO: Venezuela: A Mafia State?

The Venezuelan military takes action as needed to ensure the covert entrance and exit of the aircrafts transporting the drug shipments. One popular way to achieve this is to switch off aerial radars precisely when aircrafts enter or leave, as a GNB colonel in Zulia state reportedly did for a drug trafficking network operating between Colombia, Venezuela, Central America and Mexico.

Another practice recently detected is the sale of air entrance codes, a practice employed by Gino Vergara, an airforce captain who made up part of an organization linked to Mexican and Colombian cartels, according to an investigation by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

share icon icon icon

Was this content helpful?

We want to sustain Latin America’s largest organized crime database, but in order to do so, we need resources.


What are your thoughts? Click here to send InSight Crime your comments.

We encourage readers to copy and distribute our work for non-commercial purposes, with attribution to InSight Crime in the byline and links to the original at both the top and bottom of the article. Check the Creative Commons website for more details of how to share our work, and please send us an email if you use an article.

Was this content helpful?

We want to sustain Latin America’s largest organized crime database, but in order to do so, we need resources.


Related Content


Latin American countries scored poorly on Transparency International’s latest corruption index, with the worst joining the ranks of war-torn nations…

COCAINE / 9 JUN 2022

An ingenious Italian-Colombian sting operation has arrested dozens of people on both continents and seized a huge quantity of cocaine,…

COCAINE / 9 FEB 2021

The flow of cocaine to Europe may have suffered along with most licit businesses due to COVID-19.

About InSight Crime


Open Position: Full Stack WordPress Developer

28 NOV 2022

As Full Stack WordPress Developer You Will: Work collaboratively with other developers and designers to maintain and improve organizational standards.Demonstrate a high level of attention to detail, and implement best…


Join Us This #GivingTuesday in Exposing Organized Crime

24 NOV 2022

For over twelve years, InSight Crime has contributed to the global dialogue on organized crime and corruption. Our work has provided policymakers, analysts, academics, journalists, and the general public with…


Like Crime, Our Coverage Knows No Borders

18 NOV 2022

The nature of global organized crime means that while InSight Crime focuses on Latin America, we also follow criminal dynamics worldwide. InSight Crime investigator Alessandro Ford covers the connections between Latin American and European…


Using Data to Expose Crime

11 NOV 2022

Co-director Jeremy McDermott made a virtual presentation at a conference hosted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The ‘Sixth International Conference on Governance, Crime, and Justice…


InSight Crime ON AIR

4 NOV 2022

InSight Crime Co-director Steven Dudley was interviewed for the podcast The Rosenberg Case: A Tale of Murder, Corruption, and Conspiracy in Guatemala, which explores the potential involvement of then president, Álvaro Colom,…