HomeNewsAnalysisHaiti's New Leader Faces Daunting Security Challenges
ANALYSIS

Haiti's New Leader Faces Daunting Security Challenges

CARIBBEAN / 16 MAY 2011 BY HANNAH STONE EN

As Haiti's President Michel Martelly begins his first week in power, among the legions of challenges facing the new leader is breaking the grip of organized crime and drug trafficking in his chaotic, disaster-struck country.

Martelly took office on Saturday, inheriting a country which some call a failed state. With an absence of government control, deeply embedded corruption, and widespread poverty, all worsened by the catastrophic earthquake of January 2010, Haiti has the conditions in which organized crime can flourish.

The U.S. State Department says Haiti is a major transit country for drugs from South America, while some eight percent of cocaine entering the U.S. is estimated to go through Haiti or the neighboring Dominican Republic. Much of the trade is thought to be directed by foreign groups, including Colombians, Jamaicans, and Americans, but there are also homegrown local gangs. The security issues this trade brings in its wake, like gang violence and corruption, stand in the way of efforts to rebuild the country.

Martelly has said he plans to combat insecurity and drug trafficking by re-establishing the Haitian army. According to the president, the new force would be charged with securing the country’s land borders and guarding its coastline, as well as leading the fight against organized crime.

Taking control of the country’s frontiers will prove crucial to Martelly's security strategy. The island nation’s long, porous borders make it a ideal transit point for drugs, which mostly arrive in planes and boats from Colombia and Venezuela. There are clandestine landing strips in the interior, and plenty of secluded areas along the coast for boats to dock unseen. The land border is equally permeable; even before the disastrous earthquake of January 2010, the U.S. had criticized the management of the mostly unguarded land frontier with the Dominican Republic, with the Dominican Army also underfunded and undertrained.

Haiti’s Coast Guard, part of the Haitian National Police (Police Nationale d’Haïti - PNH), numbers only 99 people, according to the U.S. State Department, a figure which was set to double in spring 2011. Even the anticipated team is a very small force to guard the more than 1,500 km of coastline.

However, the plans for a new army have many critics. Some point out that the country is severely lacking in resources to set up and equip the “modern army” that Martelly is touting. Without sufficient funds to train and pay soldiers properly, it’s not clear that an army would be able to effectively fight the drug trade. Many members of the chronically underpaid police are involved in trafficking, tempted by the sums offered by drugs and kidnapping gangs. Martelly has cited corruption as one of the reasons a proper army is needed, saying that the civilian police “are badly paid and sometimes neglected, which leads them astray.”

But if there isn’t the money to pay the police, or rehouse Haitian’s legions of tent-dwellers made homeless by the quake more than a year ago, it’s not clear where the government will find the funds to pay the army properly and stop them succumbing to the lure of drug money.

The Haitian army forced then-President Jean-Betrand Aristide out of office in 1991, and the former priest disbanded the force after he returned to power in 1994. There are fears, both in Haiti and abroad, that reviving the army could bring back elements responsible for abuses against civilians during the military regime. Elements in the old army were also accused of drug trafficking by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), while the International Crisis Group said that there was "large-scale" involvement of "all ranks of the army" in the drug trade.

Martelly has emphasized how important it is for Haiti to take charge of its own security - and indeed, in a country with so much influence from foreign aid donors and charities, he may have a point. The new president has expressed his backing for MINUSTAH, the UN body in Haiti, and said that the commission would be part of the transition to a Haitian army. MINUSTAH head Edmond Mulet has backed the idea of the new force, but warned that it will take a long time to establish the organization before it can replace the UN.

Martelly's promises of a first-class army may turn out to be, at least for now, unworkable campaign rhetoric for the consumption of an electorate tired of foreign control. But his willingness to acknowledge the issues of police corruption and drug trafficking signal that this former pop star is prepared to address the problems of organized crime. With strong backing from the U.S., he may be able to make headway.

share icon icon icon

Was this content helpful?

We want to sustain Latin America’s largest organized crime database, but in order to do so, we need resources.

DONATE

What are your thoughts? Click here to send InSight Crime your comments.

We encourage readers to copy and distribute our work for non-commercial purposes, with attribution to InSight Crime in the byline and links to the original at both the top and bottom of the article. Check the Creative Commons website for more details of how to share our work, and please send us an email if you use an article.

Was this content helpful?

We want to sustain Latin America’s largest organized crime database, but in order to do so, we need resources.

DONATE

Related Content

CARIBBEAN / 13 MAY 2022

Jamaica's government has signaled plans to incorporate some new tricks to raise the cost of engaging in lottery scamming, having…

HAITI / 6 JUL 2022

UN staff and diplomats may be being targeted for kidnapping in Haiti, specifically so police can use international outcry to…

G9 / 20 MAY 2022

Less than a week after a vicious 12-day gang war rocked the northern communes of Haiti’s capital of Port-au-Prince, a…

About InSight Crime

LA ORGANIZACIÓN

Extensive Coverage of our Chronicles of a Cartel Bodyguard

23 SEP 2022

Our recent investigation, A Cartel Bodyguard in Mexico’s 'Hot Land', has received extensive media coverage.

THE ORGANIZATION

InSight Crime, American University Host Illegal Fishing Panel

19 SEP 2022

InSight Crime and the Center for Latin American & Latino Studies (CLALS) at American University discussed the findings of a joint investigation on IUU fishing at a September 9 conference.

THE ORGANIZATION

Impact on the Media Landscape

9 SEP 2022

InSight Crime’s first investigation on the Dominican Republic made an immediate impact on the Dominican media landscape, with major news outlets republishing and reprinting our findings, including in …

THE ORGANIZATION

InSight Crime Sharpens Its Skills

2 SEP 2022

Last week, the InSight Crime team gathered for our annual retreat in Colombia, where we discussed our vision and strategy for the next 12 months.  During the week, we also learned how to…

THE ORGANIZATION

Colombia’s Fragile Path to Peace Begins to Take Shape

26 AUG 2022

InSight Crime is charting the progress of President Gustavo Petro’s agenda as he looks to revolutionize Colombia’s security policy, opening dialogue with guerrillas, reforming the military and police, and…